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What are dimensions? and what is the rul of dimebssion different physics quantity.

Some conjecture that time is the fourth dimension, while others call the fourth dimension "space-time" to reflect how space bends out of three dimensions when gravity gets involved. For an interesting discussion, read Steven Hawking's A Brief History of Time, which is probably available at your local library.

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Dimensions of the
Rule of Law

The Index provides new data on the following nine dimensions of the rule of law:

1. Limited Government Powers
2. Absence of Corruption
3. Order and Security
4. Fundamental Rights
5. Open Government
6. Effective Regulatory Enforcement
7. Access to Civil Justice
8. Effective Criminal Justice
9. Informal Justice

1. Limited Government PowersTOP

This factor measures the extent to which those who govern are subject to law. It comprises the means, both constitutional and institutional, by which the powers of the government and its officials and agents are limited and by which they are held accountable under the law. It also includes non-governmental checks on the government's power, such as a free and independent press. It consists of 61 variables combined to form the following seven sub-factors:

1.1 Government powers are defined in the fundamental law

1.2 Government powers are effectively limited by the legislature

1.3 Government powers are effectively limited by the judiciary

1.4 Government powers are effectively limited by independent auditing and review

1.5 Government officials are sanctioned for misconduct

1.6 Government powers are subject to non-governmental checks

1.7 Transfers of power occur in accordance with the law

2. Absence of CorruptionTOP

This factor measures three forms of corruption: bribery, improper influence by public or private interests, and misappropriation of public funds or other resources. These three forms of corruption are examined with respect to government officers in the executive branch, the judiciary, the legislature, and the police and the military. It consists of 68 variables combined to form the following four sub-factors:

2.1 Government officials in the executive branch do not use public office for private gain

2.2 Government officials in the judicial branch do not use public office for private gain

2.3 Government officials in the police and the military do not use public office for private gain

2.4 Government officials in the legislature do not use public office for private gain

3. Order and SecurityTOP

This factor measures how well the society assures the security of persons and property. It encompasses three dimensions: absence of crime; absence of civil conflict, including terrorism and armed conflict; and absence of violence as a socially acceptable means to redress personal grievances. It consists of 17 variables combined to form the following three sub-factors:

3.1 Crime is effectively controlled

3.2 Civil conflict is effectively limited

3.3 People do not resort to violence to redress personal grievances

4. Fundamental RightsTOP

This factor covers effective enforcement of laws that ensure equal protection; freedom of thought, religion, and expression; freedom of assembly and association; fundamental labor rights (including the right to collective bargaining, the prohibition of forced and child labor, and the elimination of discrimination); the rights to privacy and religion; the right to life and security of the person; and due process of law and the rights of the accused. It consists of 115 variables combined to form the following eight sub-factors:

4.1 Equal treatment and absence of discrimination are effectively guaranteed

4.2 The right to life and security of the person is effectively guaranteed

4.3 Due process of law and rights of the accused are effectively guaranteed

4.4 Freedom of opinion and expression is effectively guaranteed

4.5 Freedom of belief and religion is effectively guaranteed

4.6 The right to privacy is effectively guaranteed

4.7 Freedom of assembly and association is effectively guaranteed

4.8 Fundamental labor rights are effectively guaranteed

5. Open GovernmentTOP

This factor includes at its core the opportunity to know what the law is and what conduct is permitted and prohibited. This requires that the law be comprehensible and its meaning sufficiently clear, publicized, and explained to the general public in plain language, for them to be able to abide by it. This is one of the most basic preconditions for achieving and maintaining a rule of law society capable of guaranteeing public order, personal security, and fundamental rights. It consists of 36 variables combined to form the following six sub-factors:

5.1 The laws are comprehensible to the public

5.2 The laws are publicized and widely accessible

5.3 The laws are stable

5.4 The right to petition the government and public participation is effectively guaranteed

5.5 Official drafts of laws and regulations are available to the public

5.6 Official information is available on request

6. Effective Regulatory EnforcementTOP

This factor concerns the fair and effective enforcement of administrative regulations. The Index does not measure the presence or absence of particular forms of regulation or examine how much regulation of a particular activity is appropriate. Rather, it seeks to assess how well regulations are implemented and enforced. This includes the absence of improper influence by public officials or private interests; adherence to administrative procedures that are fair, consistent, and predictable; and freedom from government taking of private property without adequate compensation. It consists of 84 variables combined to form the following five sub-factors:

6.1 Government regulations are effectively enforced

6.2 Government regulations are applied and enforced without improper influence

6.3 Administrative proceedings are conducted without unreasonable delay

6.4 Due process is respected in administrative proceedings

6.5 The Government does not expropriate without adequate compensation

7. Access to Civil JusticeTOP

This factor requires that the system be affordable, effective, impartial, and culturally competent. Impartiality includes absence of arbitrary or irrational distinctions based on social or economic status, and other forms of bias, as well as decisions that are free of improper influence by public officials or private interests. Accessibility includes general awareness of available remedies; availability and affordability of legal advice and representation; and absence of excessive or unreasonable fees, procedural hurdles, and other barriers to access to formal dispute resolution systems. This factor also measures if the system provides for fair and effective enforcement. It consists of 57 variables combined to form the following nine sub-factors:

7.1 People are aware of available remedies

7.2 People can access and afford legal advice and representation

7.3 People can access and afford civil courts

7.4 Civil justice is free of discrimination

7.5 Civil justice is free of corruption

7.6 Civil justice is free of improper government influence

7.7 Civil justice is not subject to unreasonable delays

7.8 Civil justice is effectively enforced

7.9 ADR systems are accessible, impartial, and effective

8. Effective Criminal JusticeTOP

This factor measures if systems are capable of investigating and adjudicating criminal offences impartially and effectively, while ensuring that the rights of suspects and victims are protected. It consists of 97 variables combined to form the following seven sub-factors:

8.1 Crimes are effectively investigated

8.2 Crimes are effectively and timely adjudicated

8.3 The correctional system is effective in reducing criminal behavior

8.4 The criminal justice system is impartial

8.5 The criminal justice system is free of improper influence

8.6 The criminal justice system is free of improper government influence

8.7 The criminal justice system accords the accused due process of law

9. Informal justiceTOP

This factor concerns the role played in many countries by "informal" systems of law - including traditional, tribal, and religious courts, as well as community based systems - in resolving disputes. These systems often play a large role in cultures in which formal legal institutions fail to provide effective remedies for large segments of the population. The factor is composed of the following three sub-factors:

9.1 Informal justice is timely and effective

9.2 Informal justice is impartial and free of improper influence

9.3 Informal justice respects and protects fundamental rights

"Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation" is a registered trademark of the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation in the United States and other countries and is used with permission.

Physics quantity

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Category: My articles | Added by: javedisaac (12.22.2011) | Author: javed isaac E W
Views: 317 | Comments: 1 | Tags: What are dimensions? and what is th | Rating: 0.0/0
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